Kastro Kallithea Archaeological Project

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Project Abbreviation: 

KKAP

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Project Date: 

Tuesday, May 1, 2007 to Saturday, August 31, 2013

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Project Description: 

 

Kastro Kallithea is a fortified citadel situated on a 600 m high hill that forms the western boundary of the coastal plain of Almiros in the region of Achaia Phthiotis in Thessaly. With the exception of Friedrich Stählin, who explored and mapped the fortification walls at the beginning of the 20th century, and Dimitris Theocharis, who investigated Iron Age tholos tombs scattered at the foot of the hill in 1964 (see below), no systematic archaeological investigations had been conducted on the site prior to the Greek-Canadian fieldwork. The site was abandoned in antiquity and no modern building activity has taken place on Kastro Kallithea. The high level of preservation and good visibility of the ancient remains on the surface, in particular the architecture, therefore provided an excellent opportunity for the study of the spatial organization of an urban centre, initially through surface survey.

Fieldwork at the Kastro at Kallithea [KKAP] is conducted as a collaboration (synergasia) between CIG and the 15th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities at Larissa. The project is directed by Dr. Sophia Karapanou (15th Ephorate) and Prof. Margriet Haagsma (University of Alberta). This synergasia began in 2004 with Mr. Athanasios Tziafalias of the Larissa Ephorate. The focus of the study is a heavily fortified Hellenistic city in southern Thessaly, and its environmental and political setting. The project examines the city’s plan, its private and public architecture, its economic context and its occupation history as part of a wider aim of studying social and economic change in the region through exploration of the interactions between household, city, surrounding landscape and other cities in the area over time.

The name of the ancient city cannot be determined with certainty, but ‘Peuma’ has been suggested based on epigraphical evidence. The survey’s goals were to establish the history and the dates of occupation of the site, to explore the city’s spatial layout, and to analyse the distribution of artefacts and architecture at the site in order to gain information about its social and economic organisation. The site’s defensive structures were also studied in order to compare them to those of other cities in the region. All the results will be analysed comparatively, in the broader context of already known Classical and Hellenistic sites in the region.

The four tholos tombs near the Kastro, now measured with the EDM Total Station, were dated by Dimitris Theocharis in 1964 to the Iron Age based on descriptions of the finds by the local population. The fifth burial, a cist grave at the foot of the hill, was pointed out to the surveyors and will be examined by the Larissa Ephorate.

Preliminary results indicate that the site had at least four different phases. The first phase is attested by the Iron Age tholos tombs, while the second phase is evident in the acropolis wall, which was first erected at a time before the Early Hellenistic occupation. The majority of the architectural remains and the city layout as a whole, with its regular Hippodamian layout of houses, an agora, public buildings, wells, and extensive defenses, reflect the Hellenistic phase, ca. early-3rd -2nd century BCE. The surface survey revealed limited Roman and post-Roman activity in a few areas of the site.

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Bibliography: 

Karapanou, S., M. Haagsma and S. Gouglas. In press. “Kastro Kallithea.” Αρχαιολογικόν Δελτίον: 95-63 (2003-2009).

Haagsma, M. and S. Karapanou. In press. “Domestic and city-wide cults in Achaia Phthiotis, Thessaly.” In Sanctuaries and Cult in Ancient Thessaly. A Conference organized by the British School at Athens and Lincoln College, Oxford. Athens, Nov. 30 - Dec. 1 2012C. Morgan and M. Stamatopoulou eds.

Haagsma, M.J. and S. Karapanou. In press. "Cakes and Cults: Negotiating Identity in Hellenistic Achaia Phthiotis." In Cults and Sanctuaries in Ancient Thessaly. C. Morgan and M. Stamatopoulou eds. British School at Athens, Supplementary Volume. 

Haagsma, M., Sophia Karapanou and Laura Surtees. In press. “The Greek-Canadian Archaeological Project at Kastro Kallithea. A Report on the 2006-2011 seasons.In Αρχαιολογικό Έργο Θεσσαλίας και Στέρεας Ελλάδας. Πρακτικά επιστημονικής συνάντησης. A. Μαζαράκης-Αινιάν ed.

Stamatopoulou, M. In press. “‘Kastro Kallithea’ in Archaeology in Thessaly.” Archaeological Reports/BCH 2013.

Chykerda, C.M., M. J. Haagsma and S. Karapanou. 2015. "Landscapes of Defense: Kastro Kallithea and Its Role in Fourth-Century BCE Achaia Phthiotis." Backdirt (Journal of the Cotsen Instititute of Archaeology, UCLA): 10-23. 

Chykerda, C. Myles, M.J. Haagsma and S. Karapanou. 2014. "From City to Sea: Kastro Kallithea (Thessaly) and its Role in the Defense of Southern Achaia Phthiotis." Pgs. 285-310. In Meditations on the Diversity of the Built Environment in the Aegean Basin and Beyond. Proceedings of a Colloquium In Memorium of Dr. Frederick E. Winter, Canadian Institute in Greece, June 22-23, 2012. D. Rupp and J. Tomlinson eds. Publications of the Canadian Institute in Greece 8. Athens: Canadian Institute in Greece.

Haagsma, M., S. Karapanou and Laura Surtees. 2015. "Greek-Canadian Fieldwork at Kastro Kallithea 2006-2012." Pgs. 245-256. In Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the Archaeology of Thessaly and Central Greece. Volos 16-8 March 2012. A. Mazarakis-Ainian, ed. The University of Volos Press.

Haagsma, M.J. 2014. "Abandonment and commemoration: Ancient and modern housing in Achaia Phthiotis, Thessaly." Pgs. 453-478. In Meditations on the Diversity of the Built Environment in the Aegean Basin and Beyond. Proceedings of a Colloquium In Memorium of Dr. Frederick E. Winter, Canadian Institute in Greece, June 22-23, 2012. D. Rupp and J. Tomlinson eds. Publications of the Canadian Institute in Greece 8. Athens: Canadian Institute in Greece.

Haagsma, M. 2014. "Ten years of archaeological research at Kallithea: an overview." The Bulletin of the Canadian Institute in Greece 33.

Surtees, L., S. Karapanou and M. Haagsma. 2014. "Exploring Kastro Kallithea on the Surface: the foundation and occupation of Kastro Kallithea, Thessaly, Greece." Pgs. 341-452. In Meditations on the Diversity of the Built Environment in the Aegean Basin and Beyond. Proceedings of a Colloquium In Memorium of Dr. Frederick E. Winter, Canadian Institute in Greece, June 22-23, 2012. D. Rupp and J. Tomlinson eds. Publications of the Canadian Institute in Greece 8. Athens: Canadian Institute in Greece.

 

Rupp, David et al. 2012. “The Fieldwork of the Canadian Institute in Greece, 2010: ‘Kastro Kallithea: Thessaly (Sophia Karapanou and Margriet J. Haagsma).’” Mouseion 12.1: 4-7.

Rupp, David et al. 2012. “The Fieldwork of the Canadian Institute in Greece, 2011: Kastro Kallithea (Sophia Karapanou and Margriet Haagsma).” Mouseion 12.2: 138-140.

  

Surtees, L. 2012. On the Surface of a Thessalian City: The Urban Survey of Kastro Kallithea, Greece. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Bryn Mawr College.

“Kastro Kallithea 2012” Archaeology in Greece Online/Chronique des fouilles en ligne. Last modified June 7, 2013, http://chronique.efa.gr/index.php/fiches/voir/3100/

Haagsma, M., S. Karapanou, T. Harvey and L. Surtees. 2011. “An Ancient City and its Agora. Results of the Archaeological Project at the Kastro of Kallithea, Greece.” Pgs. 197-209. In 'The Agora in the Mediterranean: from Homeric to Roman times,organised by the Archaeological Institute for Aegean Studies, the Hellenic Ministry of Economy, Competitiveness and Shipping and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism. E. Giannikouri ed.

Rupp, David. 2011. “The Fieldwork of the Canadian Institute in Greece, 2009: ‘Kastro Kallithea.’” Mouseion 11.1: 1-6.

Tziafalias, A., S. Karapanou, M. Haagsma and S. Gouglas. 2011. “An Intensive Survey of the Kastro at Kallithea (report on the 2004 season).” Αρχαιολογικόν Δελτίον 56-59 (2001-2004): 559-564.

Bouras, C. 2010. “Kastro Kallithea.” Archaeology in Greece Online/Chronique des fouilles en ligne. Last modified June 20, 2011, http://chronique.efa.gr/index.php/fiches/voir/2061

Haagsma, M. 2010. “Hellenistic Housing in Achaia Phthiotis: a regional approach to domestic economy and social organisation."  Pgs. 33-49. In Proceedings of the conference: "Urban Living in the Eastern Mediterranean: 4th century BC – 1st century AD."  Vienna, October 24-27, 2007. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Zentrum Archaeologie und Altertumswissenschaften. Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike. C. Ladstaetter et al. eds.

Haagsma, M., R. Lee, C. Martin, S. Karapanou and S. Gouglas. 2010. “Rebuilding the past: Modelling Architecture of Kastro Kallithea to understand Macedonian Influences in Hellenistic Thessaly.” In Proceedings of the 39th Chacmool Conference, Postcolonial Perspectives in Archaeology. November 2006. University of Calgary. P. Bikoulis, D. Lacroix, M. Peuramaki-Brown eds.

Mulliez, D. 2010. “Kallithea.” Archaeological Reports 56: 107.

Tziafalias, A., S. Karapanou, M. Haagsma and S. Gouglas. 2009. “Preliminary results of the Urban Survey at Kastro Kallithea.” Pgs. 217-229. In Αρχαιολογικό Έργο Θεσσαλίας και Στέρεας Ελλάδας. Πρακτικά επιστημονικής συνάντησης 2. Βόλος 16.3-19.3 2006. Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού. A. Μαζαράκης-Αινιάν ed. Volos: Ministry of Culture.

Morgan, C. 2008. “Kastro Kallithea.” Archaeological Reports 54: 60-61.

Tziafalias, A., M. Haagsma, S. Karapanou and S. Gouglas. 2008. “The Kastro of Kallithea in its historical context.” Pgs. 224-232. 1 Διέθνες Συνέδριο Ιστορίας & Πολιτισμού της Θεσσαλίας. Larissa. 9-11 Nov. 2006Λίλα Π. Γλέγλέ et al. eds.

Rupp, D. 2008. “The Fieldwork of Canadian Institute in Greece, 2007: ‘Kastro Kallithea.’” Mouseion 8.2: 255-259.

Morgan, C., 2007. “Kastro Kallithea.” Archaeological Reports 53: 48. http://chronique.efa.gr/index.php/fiches/voir/458/

Rupp, D. 2007. “The Fieldwork of Canadian Institute in Greece, 2006: ‘Kastro Kallithea.’” Mouseion 7.2: 140-145.

Whitley, J., et al. 2007. “Kastro Kallithea.” Archaeological Reports 53: 46-47.

Rupp, D. 2006. “The Fieldwork of Canadian Institute in Greece, 2005: ‘Kastro Kallithea.’” Mouseion 6.2: 211-212.

Touchais, A. 2006. “Kallithéa Pharsalon.” Archaeology in Greece Online/Chronique des fouilles en ligne. Last modified September 29, 2009, http://chronique.efa.gr/index.php/fiches/voir/248/

Tziafalias, A., M. Haagsma, S. Karapanou and S. Gouglas. 2006. “Scratching the Surface. A Preliminary Report of the first Two Seasons of Fieldwork at Kastro Kallithea, Thessaly. Part 1.” Mouseion 6.2: 91-135.

Whitley, J., et al. 2006. “Kastro Kallithea.” Archaeological Reports 52: 76-78.

Kennell, S. 2005. “Fieldwork of the Canadian Archaeological Institute in Athens, 2004.” Mouseion 5.3: 287-301.

Kennell, S. 2005. “Kallithea, Thessaly.” Pgs. 44-45. In On Site. Canadian Archaeologists in Greece. Athens, Motibo.

Whitley, J., et al. 2005. “Kastro Kallithea.” Archaeological Reports 51: 62-63.

Stählin, F. 1967. Das Hellenische Thessalien. Amsterdam. (Reprint of the 1924 edition.)

Θεοχάρης, Δ. 1964. “Καλλιθέα.” Αρχαιολογικόν Δελτίον 19: 261-262.

Stählin, F. 1938. ‘Peuma’. In: RE. Vol. XIX2, 1399-1405.

Stählin, F. 1914. “Die Grenzen von Melitaia, Pereia, Peumata und Chalai.” Mitteilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung 39: 83-103.

Stählin, F. 1906. “Zur Landeskunde der Phthiotis.” Mitteilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung 31: 1-37.

Project Website: 

http://www.greekarchaeology.org

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